On the night of March 18, 1917, several hundred Republican leaders gathered in the Union League Club in New York City. With German U-boats engaging in unrestricted warfare and sinking American ships on the high seas despite United States neutrality in World War I, the Republicans demanded that President Woodrow Wilson declare war against Kaiser Wilhelm II’s belligerent empire, infuse fresh warriors into the stagnant European war, and prove that the U.S. was a truly international power that was only getting stronger in the midst of the American Century.
After the meeting, three of the nation’s most influential and powerful Republicans sat down to dinner in a nearby cafe. Charles Evans Hughes was a former New York Governor, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, and had narrowly lost the 1916 Presidential election to President Wilson four months earlier in one of the closest elections in American history. Theodore Roosevelt was also a former New York Governor, had served as President from 1901-1909, and his third party challenge for the Presidency in 1912 had split the GOP, sabotaged the re-election chances of his hand-picked successor, William Howard Taft, and ensured Wilson’s first Presidential election victory. Elihu Root, 72, had stepped away from the Senate two years earlier, had previously served as Roosevelt’s Secretary of War and then Secretary of State, and was frequently mentioned as a potential Presidential contender.
As they discussed the crisis at hand and envisioned American entry into the war, Roosevelt — a vicious critic of President Wilson, who disliked TR just as strongly — passionately spoke of his hope to lead American soldiers into battle in Europe much like he had done nearly 20 years earlier with the Rough Riders in Cuba during the Spanish-American War. At 58 years old, Roosevelt was overweight, nearly deaf, blind in one eye, and had never fully recovered from a near-fatal bought of malaria that he contracted during a seven-month-long expedition in unexplored jungles of Brazil a couple of years earlier. Partly due to his age, but mostly due to their contentious relationship, it was unlikely that President Wilson would grant Roosevelt his wish. But with tears welling in his eyes and his voice breaking, the former President told Hughes and Root how badly he hoped to serve his country one last time. ”I must go,” said Roosevelt, “but I will not come back.”
Roosevelt’s emotional declaration dramatically silenced his fellow Republican statesmen at the table. Hughes, who would later become Secretary of State and then Chief Justice of the United States, solemnly looked at Roosevelt (who had once said that the sober, reticent Hughes was a “bearded iceberg”) without saying anything. It was Root, who had served in Roosevelt’s Cabinet throughout almost all of TR’s Presidency, who finally spoke up.
“Theodore, if you can make Wilson believe that you will not come back, he will let you go!”
Well, I think Wilson is tremendously overrated. I think his idealism was essentially an early-20th Century version of George W. Bush’s idealism. Wilson set forth that idea that American knows best, Americans always do right, and the American way is the best way for everyone. It’s presumptuous, paternalistic, and offensive to people from other countries, as it should be.
I think that the punitive expedition of General Pershing that Wilson launched into Mexico after Pancho Villa’s cross-border attack in New Mexico was half-assed and misguided. I think that Wilson waited too long to get Americans ready for World War I when American entry into the war earlier probably could have saved a lot more lives in Europe. When the U.S. finally entered the war, it took longer than it should have for the American forces to get ready to be shipped overseas. The U.S. should have had its soldiers ready, as many American leaders were urging the Wilson Administration to do even before his reelection. On top of that, his selection of William Jennings Bryan as Secretary of State was the wrong choice for that tumultuous period.
What did he do that was good? Well, we’re seeing the disadvantages of the Federal Reserve, but it was a good thing to control the flow of money and calming economic conditions. There were some good things done with anti-trust and child labor laws, and the Adamson Act helped pave the way for an 8-hour workday in the United States.
I’m not the guy to sing Wilson’s praises, however. I think he is a vastly overrated American leader. I think he was a stubborn politician. I think he was a bad person. And, I think he put the country in a lot of danger with the way he tried to dominate the post-war treaty negotiations, the way he tried to sell of the League of Nations as something that Americans should accept because it was a Wilson-supported idea, and the way he hung on to power after a stroke that left him an incapacitated shell who was an emotional, physical, and mental wreck.