There’s a great book by Michael Dobbs which focuses on the relationships between the Allied leaders in the last few months of World War II called Six Months in 1945: FDR, Stalin, Churchill, and Truman — From World War to Cold War that really goes in-depth about how they worked and felt about each other.
At Postdam, tensions were starting to rise with the Soviet Union because Truman was more suspicious about Communist intentions in post-war Europe than the ailing FDR had been at Yalta. Churchill was in a rough spot at Potsdam because he had lost his election back in Great Britain and the new Prime Minister, Clement Attlee, replaced Winston halfway through the conference.
Despite their suspicions, Truman and Stalin liked each other because they were both straight shooters and salt-of-the-earth characters. Churchill was wary of Truman at first — more out of his love and loyalty for the late FDR than anything else — but he quickly warmed up to him and later told Truman, “I misjudged you badly. Since that time, you, more than any other man, have saved Western Civilization.”
But Potsdam was a stressful, tense gathering. It was at the conference that President Truman learned that the atomic bomb had tested successfully and he nervously approached Stalin to notify him of the bomb and its power. It was, obviously, a big secret, so Truman wasn’t sure how Stalin would react. Churchill had been filled in on it and watched to see Stalin’s reaction when Truman filled him in about the destructive power of the bomb. Stalin seemed nonplussed and Truman and Churchill decided amongst themselves afterward that Stalin must not have understood the specifics of the bomb as Truman explained it.
The truth, however, was that Stalin didn’t seem phased by the news because Soviet spies in the United States had already kept him informed about the Manhattan Project. In fact, Stalin knew about the atomic bomb before Truman (who only learned of its existence after FDR died and he assumed the Presidency) found out about it!
I misjudged you badly. Since that time, you, more than any other man, have saved Western Civilization.
Winston Churchill, to Harry Truman, who Churchill admittedly underestimated and doubted when Truman succeeded to the Presidency upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt
I’m not big enough. I’m not big enough for this job.
Harry Truman, to a Senator on April 13, 1945, the day after he assumed the Presidency upon FDR’s death
The people can never understand why the President does not use his supposedly great power to make ‘em behave. Well, all the President is, is a glorified public relations man who spends his time flattering, kissing, and kicking people to get them to do what they are supposed to do anyway.
Sycophants will stand in the rain a week to see you and will treat you like a King. They’ll come sliding in and tell you you’re the greatest man alive — but you know you ain’t and I know you ain’t.
House Speaker Sam Rayburn to his good friend Harry Truman after Truman became President
"I fired him because he wouldn’t respect the authority of the President. I didn’t fire him because he was a dumb son-of-a-bitch, although he was, but that’s not against the law in general. If it was, half to three-quarters of them would be in jail." — Harry S Truman (1884-1972), 33rd President of the United States, explaining the firing of General Douglas MacArthur for insubordination during the Korean War
It’s absolutely true.
Truman was urgently called to the White House on the evening of April 12, 1945 and when he arrived, Eleanor Roosevelt told him that FDR was dead. A few minutes after 7:00 PM, Truman was sworn in as President in the Cabinet Room and had a brief meeting with Roosevelt’s Cabinet (which was now Truman’s Cabinet). Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson lingered after the other Cabinet members left and, when he and the new President were alone, basically told Truman, “So…there’s something you should know…”
I’m paraphrasing, of course, but it really wasn’t much more than that at first. Truman was already overwhelmed by being thrust so suddenly into the Presidency — many people don’t realize that Truman was only Vice President for 82 days. Everything was a whirlwind in April 1945. FDR died on April 12th. The Allies were meeting in San Francisco to form the United Nations on April 25th. Mussolini died on April 28th. Hitler died on April 30th. American, British, and Soviet forces were closing in on Berlin as the month came to an end. And, through it all, Truman took the reins of government, attempting to fill a seat held by a President and Commander-in-Chief who had held the White House longer than anyone else in history ever had and ever would.
Imagine, in the midst of all of that, being told for the very first time — and only because he unexpectedly became President — of a massive and devastating weapon that was so new and so unheard of that Truman wasn’t only informed about it, but he had to be educated about how it worked and what it might be able to do (if it worked, of course). Secretary Stimson gave Truman a bare bones description on the night that Roosevelt died. It wasn’t until he was able to get more in-depth briefings over the next few days with other FDR Administration insiders and scientists involved with the bomb’s development that Truman gained a real understanding about exactly what the bomb might be capable of. Pretty crazy, right? Welcome to the White House, Mr. President.
I think that Eisenhower and Reagan probably would have been tempted to seek a third term, if possible. They both had health problems during their Presidencies, but I could see Eisenhower seeking a third term anyway. He had a difficult time stepping away, which is one reason why he waited so long to give Richard Nixon a solid endorsement in 1960. It wasn’t necessarily a lack of confidence in Nixon’s abilities, but partly because Ike felt that he (Ike) was still the best man for the job.
Reagan, like Clinton, loved being President, too. But when Reagan left office in 1989, he was about two weeks away from his 78th birthday and, according to his official biographer, Edmund Morris, there were signs that he may have been facing the early stages of his Alzheimer’s in the last few weeks of his Administration. Since President Reagan looked relatively healthy and definitely looked fit for his age, it’s difficult for people to realize that he was almost a full eight years older than Eisenhower (70) was when Ike left office. Even if Eisenhower had served another term, Ike still would have been four years younger than Reagan at the end of that third term. I think Reagan’s age and deteriorating health would have prevented him from a third term if it was Constitutionally possible. As closely as his public image was protected by Nancy Reagan, there is no way she would have stood by while he hung on for another term and publicly started to suffer from serious Alzheimer’s symptoms.
An interesting thing is that, if they had the opportunity to run for a third term and their health allowed it, I think Eisenhower, Reagan, and Clinton all would have been easily elected to another term. I think George W. Bush would have had a much more difficult time with seeking a third term, if possible. However, I don’t think Bush would have run again even if he was Constitutionally eligible. In those last few months of 2008, President Bush looked SO ready to get back to Texas. Even if his chances of being re-elected were positive, I still think he would have chosen retirement instead of a third term.
As for the second part of your question, I think that Truman would have stepped away in 1952, no matter what. All Truman ever wanted to do was remain a U.S. Senator. When he was suggested as a potential Vice Presidential candidate, he was not interested, and when others reminded him that President Franklin D. Roosevelt likely wouldn’t survive the term, Truman declared that he didn’t want to be President either. Of course, he was elected Vice President and as in the case of almost every VP who succeeds to the Presidency, once Truman got to the White House he wanted to be elected to a term in his own right. Still, before Eisenhower declared that he was a Republican, Truman was suggesting that he (Truman) would be happy to step aside and be Eisenhower’s running mate if Ike wanted to run for President as a Democrat. So, Harry Truman did not mind retiring home to Missouri in 1952, and I think he would have done so, no matter what.
LBJ’s case was different. The fact that he was very nearly upset in the 1968 New Hampshire Democratic Primary by Eugene McCarthy really shook President Johnson up and showed that he was vulnerable. If there wasn’t a serious challenge from within his own party — first from McCarthy and then from RFK — LBJ would have stayed in that race in 1968. Despite his withdrawal from the race, deep down LBJ still had a flicker of hope that the Democratic National Convention would be deadlocked, turn to the outgoing LBJ, draft him into the race, nominate him, and he’d be the conquering hero, vanquishing Nixon and bringing the Vietnam War to an end.
LBJ was also a man of contradictions, though. Throughout his life, he always said that he would die young because all of the men in his family died by the time they were 64 or 65. As much as Johnson was addicted to power and craved the love of the American people (something that he never received like JFK did, which “broke his heart” according to Richard Nixon), he was also deeply worried that another four years in the White House would kill him. Worse yet, he would suffer an incapacitating stroke like Woodrow Wilson. LBJ often had a nightmare where he fell ill like Wilson and was an invalid — a shell of a once-powerful man bedridden or feebly being rolled through the White House in a wheelchair. It was an macabre thing to think about, but it was something that frequently haunted President Johnson, especially because he had suffered a near-fatal massive heart attack in 1955 when he was Senate Majority Leader. The confident, arrogant, impetuous, strong-willed LBJ wanted to take on Nixon and serve four more years in the White House. The sensitive, insecure, depressed LBJ considered resigning, didn’t think he’d live through the next term (1969-1973), and often had to receive a pep talk from Lady Bird to get his act together and go to work. So, with LBJ, it would actually depend on which LBJ you got on decision day when it comes to whether he would have sought a third term if not for the disastrous results of the 1968 New Hampshire Democratic Primary.
By the way, Lyndon Johnson died on January 22, 1973. If he had served a third term, it would have ended on January 20, 1973, just two days prior to the day that he actually died.
HARRY S. TRUMAN
33rd President of the United States (1945-1953)
Full Name: Harry S. Truman
Born: May 10, 1884, Lamar, Missouri
Term: April 12, 1945-January 20, 1953
Political Party: Democratic
Vice President: Alben William Barkley
Died: December 26, 1972, Research Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri
Buried: Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum, Independence, Missouri
When Harry Truman left office, he had one of the lowest approval ratings in American History. As the years passed — as we frequently see happen — Americans and historians began to remember him more fondly. They looked at his style of leadership and his decisive manner and recognized that Truman was a straight-shooter, confident in his ability, his power, and with the decisions that he made. We don’t have many politicians like Harry Truman anymore. That’s why he’s a favorite of leaders from both sides of the aisle — George W. Bush was a big fan of Truman (and has often mentioned the rehabilitation of Truman’s legacy when asked about his own low approval ratings). Truman wasn’t cool and unemotional like FDR or calm and collected like Eisenhower, but he was decisive and he never second-guessed himself. Truman doesn’t have a list of accomplishments that propel him to the top of the rankings, but his personality and his decisive leadership make him one of the greats.
1948: Schlesinger Sr./Life Magazine: Not Ranked
1962: Schlesinger Sr./New York Times Magazine: 9 of 31
1982: Neal/Chicago Tribune Magazine: 8 of 38
1990: Siena Institute: 7 of 40
1996: Schlesinger Jr./New York Times Magazine: 8 of 39
2000: C-SPAN Survey of Historians: 5 of 41
2000: C-SPAN Public Opinion Poll: 7 of 41
2005: Wall Street Journal/Presidential Leadership: 7 of 40
2009: C-SPAN Survey of Historians: 5 of 42
2010: Siena Institute: 9 of 43
2011: University of London’s U.S. Presidency Centre: 7 of 40
"You know Americans are funny birds. They are always sticking their noses into somebody’s business which isn’t any of theirs…The United States was created by the boys and girls who couldn’t get along at home. So-called Puritans who weren’t by any manner of means pure came to Mass. to try out their own witch-burning theories…Most every colony on the East Coast was founded for about the same reason by folks who couldn’t get along at home. But by all amalgamation we’ve made a very good country and a great nation with a reasonably good government. I want to maintain it and shall do all I can in spite of the hyphenates and crackpots. I’ve no more use for Polish-Americans, Irish-Americans, Swedish-Americans or any other sort of hyphenate than I have for Communist-Americans. They all have some other loyalty than the one they should have. Maybe the old melting pot will take care of it. I hope so." — Harry Truman, personal diary entry, June 7, 1945