Dead Presidents

Historical facts, thoughts, ramblings and collections on the Presidency and about the Presidents of the United States.

By Anthony Bergen
E-Mail: bergen.anthony@gmail.com
Posts tagged "Campaigns"
Asker Anonymous Asks:
What do you think of the Super PAC system?
deadpresidents deadpresidents Said:

Our entire campaign finance system is a joke.  With Super PACs, I think we should just drop the stupid games and acknowledge what they really are and what really happens with them.  I don’t think anybody truly believes that there is no direct coordination between Super PACs and candidates, especially when Super PACs are directed by people with extremely close connections with specific candidates.  It’s ridiculous.  Just stop insulting our intelligence and acknowledge it for what it actually is. If you’re already doing what you want to do, why do you need to try to trick us into thinking that it’s not what we know it is?

Listen, imagine if Kermit the Frog was running for President and there was a Super PAC called “Building a Green Future" that Miss Piggy was in charge of.  Everyone would probably say, "Hey, I bet they are totally coordinating their campaigns", right?  And no matter how many times Kermit denied any collusion between his campaign and Miss Piggy’s Super PAC, we probably wouldn’t believe him if he kept showing up on MSNBC with Miss Piggy’s lipstick marks all over his stupid face, right?

Well, that’s basically the charade we get with campaigns and Super PACs nowadays, except the candidates aren’t nearly as appealing as Kermit the Frog and there is cash in the place of Miss Piggy’s lipstick.

Asker robofsydney Asks:
In reading "The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt" I see that he campaigned for the Governorship of New York in 1899 by barnstorming the state in "whistle-stop" mode. I always thought that the whistle stop campaigns came a little later, so was this one one of the first? If that worked for him in 1899, presumably Teddy used the same method when he ran for president in 1904.
deadpresidents deadpresidents Said:

While Presidential candidates didn’t campaign as openly or actively for themselves during the 19th Century, there were examples of candidates campaigning from trains at that time.  It’s not clear how similar they were to Truman’s 1948 campaign or whistle stop campaigns as we know it today. Now, they probably weren’t as extensive as later whistle stop campaigns, and in some cases where it says that candidates campaigned by train, they may have simply traveled to an event or speech by train, but they did happen.

There are indications that William Henry Harrison campaigned by train as early as 1836 — his unsuccessful bid for the Presidency four years before he unseated Martin Van Buren.  Again, I’m not positive that he campaigned in the whistle stop method that we think of when we hear the term.  In 1836, the railroad network in the United States was very young and incomplete, so Harrison probably just used the train to travel to a speech, instead of stopping at various stations and speaking from the rear platform.

As for Theodore Roosevelt’s 1904 campaign for President, not only did he not campaign by train, but he didn’t campaign at all.  His opponent was the least impressive major party nominee in American History, Alton B. Parker, whose highlight on his resume was being Chief Judge of the State of New York’s Court of Appeals.  So, TR stayed home and focused on his work and still routed Parker in the election.

Asker Anonymous Asks:
Jerry Brown ran for president three times - 1976, 1980, and 1992. If you had to pick one, which instance would you say "fit" the best? Which Jerry Brown campaign was just at the right time?
deadpresidents deadpresidents Said:

None of the campaigns were at the right time.  That’s the problem.  Poor Jerry Brown has been the victim of terrible timing.

In 1976, Brown had only been Governor of California for one year and was just 38 years old.  In reality, it was way too early for him to make a step toward the Presidency.  Oddly enough, it was also the closest that he ever got to winning the Democratic Presidential nomination.  Brown had name recognition because he was making headlines in California, was a fresh face who appeared to be at the forefront of the next generation of American politicians, and was the son of a former California Governor.  He made a good showing in some of the Democratic primaries in 1976, but he entered the race too late.  Jimmy Carter had too much of a head start and Brown simply couldn’t catch him.  Despite all of that, 1976 was probably his best shot.

The 1980 bid was rough because he was challenging an incumbent President for his own party’s nomination.  Governor Brown wasn’t the only Democrat challenging President Carter in 1980 and he wasn’t the most exciting or buzzworthy with the media — that was Senator Edward Kennedy.  Brown also faced backlash back home in California because it was the second time he sought the Presidency since being elected Governor.  Californians wanted him at work in Sacramento rather than hitting the trail in Iowa and New Hampshire.  Even if he had overcome Carter for the 1980 Democratic nomination (not an easy task despite Carter’s unpopularity since Kennedy couldn’t beat him, either), Brown would have most likely been trounced in the general election by the man who preceded him as Governor of California — Ronald Reagan.

Jerry Brown’s 1992 campaign for the Democratic nomination was a very interesting one, largely because of the genuine animosity between Brown and the eventual nominee (and President) Bill Clinton.  There was a nasty confrontation in one of the Democratic debates where it looked for a moment like Clinton might actually punch Brown.  Because of his low-budget fundraising, Brown shouldn’t have done as well as he did in 1992, but he started picking up some momentum in the later primaries.  Unfortunately for Brown, he needed some of the earlier primaries to keep Clinton from clinching the nomination from the convention in order to force a brokered convention.  The dislike between Clinton and Brown was apparent at the Democratic National Convention when Brown refused to endorse Clinton during Brown’s speech.

Of the three bids that Jerry Brown made — 1976, 1980, and 1992 — it was the first attempt in 1976 that was probably the closest Brown came to winning the Democratic nomination.  The best chance that Brown might have had to become President was actually in a year that he didn’t run — 1988.  The field was wide-open for Democrats and Republicans because the election of then-Vice President George H.W. Bush was no sure thing.  As I said, however, Brown’s timing when it came to seeking the Presidency has been rather unfortunate.

That hasn’t changed, by the way.  Right now, Jerry Brown looks like he will easily be re-elected as Governor of California in 2014.  From what I have read (granted, I haven’t lived in California since 2010),  Brown has been doing a better-than-expected job and his popularity is high.  Because of the size of the state, its worth in the Electoral College, and the nature of the job, California’s Governors are always potential Presidential contenders.  Unfortunately for Governor Brown, the man who was once the youngest Governor in California’s history is now the oldest Governor in California’s history and he’ll be 78 years old in 2016 — way too old to be a serious contender for the Presidency.  If he were 15 years younger, Brown would be a frontrunner in 2016

Asker Anonymous Asks:
Did Ross Perot have any chance at becoming president?
deadpresidents deadpresidents Said:

No, but what Perot did in 1992 was really remarkable.  The case could definitely be made that Perot was the spoiler and decided the ‘92 election, but in order to be considered a serious threat to win the Presidency, you have to at least win one state and Perot didn’t win any.

1964 Lyndon B. Johnson television ad (via the Living Room Candidate)

The greatest political ad of all-time — the “Daisy” ad, which only aired once because it is so incredibly fucking terrifying that one showing was enough to frighten Americans into thinking that a Barry Goldwater Presidency would basically result in a nuclear holocaust and the destruction of the world.  If you’re wondering how to win a Presidential election in 60 seconds, just press play.

There are a lot of things that we never want to hear our President say, but LBJ made sure to waste no words or soften his stark declaration: "We must love each other, or we must die."  Not exactly “Change you can believe in” or “compassionate conservatism”, is it? 

Have I mentioned that LBJ was awesome? 

Asker Anonymous Asks:
Are there any particular media-speculated 2016 candidates you DON'T think are likely to run?
deadpresidents deadpresidents Said:

As I’ve said before, it’s even a little too early to start speculating about who is going to run in 2016 and I really don’t want to jump the gun on what will almost certainly be a ridiculously long campaign anyway.  But to speculate about which speculated candidates in the 2016 political spectrum are specifically going to go against speculation is especially speculative at this specific second.

Did that last sentence give anybody else an aneurysm, or just me?

I’m pretty sure that I don’t remember what it’s like to not live in the midst of an all-encompassing political campaign.  Then again, considering how campaigns seem to begin earlier and earlier in 21st Century American politics, I wouldn’t be surprised if the midterm cycle kicks off this afternoon.

(P.S.: I better not see stories about potential 2016 Presidential candidates until AT LEAST Inauguration Day.  In a perfect world, we’d be safe from starting that discussion until late-2014.)

While a stint in the United States House of Representatives is a fairly common job that you will find on the resumes of our Presidents and Vice Presidents, it usually is not a stepping stone directly into the Presidency or Vice Presidency.  In fact, if the Republican ticket featuring Mitt Romney and Wisconsin Congressman Paul Ryan win in November, Ryan will be the first incumbent member of the House in 80 years to take office as President or Vice President.

Only one incumbent House member has been elected President: James Garfield of Ohio in 1880.  Five incumbent members of the House of Representatives have been elected Vice President: Richard Mentor Johnson of Kentucky (1836), Schuyler Colfax of Indiana (1868), William Almon Wheeler of New York (1876), James Schoolcraft Sherman of New York (1908), and John Nance Garner of Texas (1932).  Colfax and Garner are also the only incumbent Speakers of the House to be elected President or Vice President.

Overall, 18 Presidents served in the U.S. House of Representatives at one point in their career, including James K. Polk, who remains the only Speaker of the House to serve as President.  John Quincy Adams served in the House AFTER he was President.  John Tyler, who served in the U.S. House early in his career, was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives shortly before his death.

Although we haven’t had an incumbent House member elected Vice President since 1932, Paul Ryan might take some comfort in the fact that, throughout our history, a whopping 24 Vice Presidents served in the House at some point in their lives (25 if you count Daniel D. Tompkins who was elected to the House but resigned before taking office in order to accept an appointment to the New York State Supreme Court).  Not only that, but four of our last five Vice Presidents (Bush 41, Quayle, Gore, and Cheney) were House alumni.

This is the fourth and final part of our look at major party tickets for President and Vice President since the enactment of the Twelfth Amendment.  Here is Part IHere is Part IIHere is Part III.

1960: Kennedy/Johnson defeated Nixon/Lodge
Democratic Party ticket
-John F. Kennedy (MA), 43 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
-Lyndon B. Johnson (TX), 52 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Texas/Senate Majority Leader

Republican Party ticket
-Richard Nixon (CA), 47 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States
-Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (MA), 58 years old, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations

1964: Johnson/Humphrey defeated Goldwater/Miller
Democratic Party ticket
-Lyndon B. Johnson (TX), 56 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Hubert H. Humphrey (MN), 53 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Minnesota

Republican Party ticket
-Barry Goldwater (AZ), 55 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Arizona
-William E. Miller (NY), 50 years old, incumbent U.S. Representative from New York

1968: Nixon/Agnew defeated Humphrey/Muskie and Wallace/Lemay
Republican Party ticket
-Richard Nixon (CA), 55 years old, former Vice President of the United States/1960 Republican Presidential nominee
-Spiro Agnew (MD), 49 years old, incumbent Governor of Maryland

Democratic Party ticket
-Hubert H. Humphrey (MN), 57 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States
-Edmund Muskie (ME), 54 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Maine

American Independent Party ticket
-George C. Wallace (AL), 49 years old, former Governor of Alabama
-Curtis LeMay (OH), 61 years old, United States Air Force General

1972: Nixon/Agnew defeated McGovern/Shriver
Republican Party ticket
-Richard Nixon (CA), 59 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Spiro Agnew (MD), 53 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

Democratic Party ticket
-George S. McGovern (SD), 50 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from South Dakota
-Sargent Shriver (MD), 56 years old, diplomat/former Peace Corps director
[McGovern originally picked Senator Thomas Eagleton of Missouri as his running mate but dumped him from the ticket in favor of Shriver when it was revealed that Eagleton had been treated for mental illness with electroshock therapy.]

1976: Carter/Mondale defeated Ford/Dole
Democratic Party ticket
-Jimmy Carter (GA), 52 years old, former Governor of Georgia
-Walter Mondale (MN), 48 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Minnesota

Republican Party ticket
-Gerald R. Ford (MI), 63 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Bob Dole (KS), 53 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Kansas

1980: Reagan/Bush defeated Carter/Mondale
Republican Party ticket
-Ronald Reagan (CA), 69 years old, former Governor of California
-George H.W. Bush (TX), 56 years old, former CIA Director/diplomat/former U.S. Representative from Texas

Democratic Party ticket
-Jimmy Carter (GA), 56 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Walter Mondale (MN), 52 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

1984: Reagan/Bush defeated Mondale/Ferraro
Republican Party ticket
-Ronald Reagan (CA), 73 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-George H.W. Bush (TX), 60 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

Democratic Party ticket
-Walter Mondale (MN), 56 years old, former Vice President of the United States
-Geraldine Ferraro (NY), 49 years old, incumbent U.S. Representative from New York

1988: Bush/Quayle defeated Dukakis/Bentsen
Republican Party ticket
-George H.W. Bush (TX), 64 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States
-Dan Quayle (IN), 41 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Indiana

Democratic Party ticket
-Michael Dukakis (MA), 55 years old, incumbent Governor of Massachusetts
-Lloyd Bentsen (TX), 67 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Texas

1992: Clinton/Gore defeated Bush/Quayle and Perot/Stockdale
Democratic Party ticket
-Bill Clinton (AR), 46 years old, incumbent Governor of Arkansas
-Al Gore (TN), 44 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Tennessee

Republican Party ticket
-George H.W. Bush (TX), 68 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Dan Quayle (IN), 45 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

Independent ticket
-Ross Perot (TX), 62 years old, businessman
-James Stockdale (CA), 68 years old, United States Navy Admiral/Medal of Honor recipient

1996: Clinton/Gore defeated Dole/Kemp and Perot/Choate
Democratic Party ticket
-Bill Clinton (AR), 50 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Al Gore (TN), 48 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

Republican Party ticket
-Bob Dole (KS), 73 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Kansas/Senate Majority Leader
-Jack Kemp (NY), 61 years old, former U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development/former U.S. Representative from New York

Reform Party ticket
-Ross Perot (TX), 66 years old, businessman/1996 Independent Presidential candidate
-Pat Choate (OK), 55 years old, economist

2000: Bush/Cheney defeated Gore/Lieberman
Republican Party ticket
-George W. Bush (TX), 54 years old, incumbent Governor of Texas
-Dick Cheney (WY), 59 years old, former U.S. Secretary of Defense

Democratic Party ticket
-Al Gore (TN), 52 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States
-Joe Lieberman (CT), 58 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Connecticut

2004: Bush/Cheney defeated Kerry/Edwards
Republican Party ticket
-George W. Bush (TX), 58 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Dick Cheney (WY), 63 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

Democratic Party ticket
-John Kerry (MA), 60 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
-John Edwards (NC), 51 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from North Carolina

2008: Obama/Biden defeated McCain/Palin
Democratic Party ticket
-Barack Obama (IL), 47 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Illinois
-Joe Biden (DE), 65 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Delaware

Republican Party ticket
-John McCain (AZ), 72 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Arizona
-Sarah Palin (AK), 44 years old, incumbent Governor of Alaska

2012: Obama/Biden vs. Romney/Ryan (Election Day: November 6, 2012)
Democratic Party ticket
-Barack Obama (IL), 51 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Joe Biden (DE), 69 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

Republican Party ticket
-Mitt Romney (MA), 65 years old, former Governor of Massachusetts/businessman
-Paul Ryan (WI), 42 years old, incumbent U.S. Representative from Wisconsin

Part III of our look at the major party tickets for President and Vice President since the enactment of the Twelfth Amendment.  Here is Part I, covering 1804-1832For Part II, covering 1836-1892, click here.

1896: McKinley/Hobart defeated Bryan/Sewall
Republican Party ticket
-William McKinley (OH), 53 years old, Governor of Ohio
-Garret A. Hobart (NJ), 52 years old, Vice Chairman of the Republican National Committee/former president of the New Jersey State Senate

Democratic/Populist Party ticket
-William Jennings Bryan (NE), 36 years old, former U.S. Representative from Nebraska
-Arthur Sewall (ME), 60 years old, shipbuilder/bank president
[Bryan was nominated as President by the Democrats and the Populist Party; Sewall was the Democratic Vice Presidential candidate and the Populist Party nominated former U.S. Representative Thomas E. Watson of Georgia for VP.]

1900: McKinley/Roosevelt defeated Bryan/Stevenson
Republican Party ticket
-William McKinley (OH), 57 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Theodore Roosevelt (NY), 42 years old, incumbent Governor of New York

Democratic Party ticket
-William Jennings Bryan (NE), 40 years old, 1896 Democratic Presidential nominee
-Adlai E. Stevenson (IL), 65 years old, former Vice President of the United States

1904: Roosevelt/Fairbanks defeated Parker/Davis
Republican Party ticket
-Theodore Roosevelt (NY), 46 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Charles Warren Fairbanks (IN), 52 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Indiana

Democratic Party ticket
-Alton B. Parker (NY), 52 years old, Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals
-Henry G. Davis (WV), 80 years old, former U.S. Senator from West Virginia

1908: Taft/Sherman defeated Bryan/Kern
Republican Party ticket
-William Howard Taft (OH), 51 years old, U.S. Secretary of War
-James S. Sherman (NY), 53 years old, incumbent U.S. Representative from New York

Democratic Party ticket
-William Jennings Bryan (NE), 48 years old, 1896 and 1900 Democratic Presidential nominee
-John W. Kern (IN), 59 years old, former Indiana State Senator

1912: Wilson/Marshall defeated Roosevelt/Johnson and Taft/Sherman
Democratic Party ticket
-Woodrow Wilson (NJ), 55 years old, incumbent Governor of New Jersey
-Thomas Riley Marshall (IN), 58 years old, incumbent Governor of Indiana

Progressive/Bull Moose Party ticket
-Theodore Roosevelt (NY), 54 years old, former President of the United States
-Hiram Johnson (CA), 46 years old, incumbent Governor of California

Republican Party ticket
-William Howard Taft (OH), 55 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-James S. Sherman (NY), 57 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States
[Vice President Sherman died a few days before Election Day, so his Electoral College votes went to Columbia University president Nicholas Murray Butler of New York.]

1916: Wilson/Marshall defeated Hughes/Fairbanks
Democratic Party ticket
-Woodrow Wilson (NJ), 59 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Thomas Riley Marshall (IN), 62 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

Republican Party ticket
-Charles Evans Hughes (NY), 54 years old, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court/former Governor of New York
-Charles Warren Fairbanks (IN), 64 years old, former Vice President of the United States

1920: Harding/Coolidge defeated Cox/Roosevelt
Republican Party ticket
-Warren G. Harding (OH), 55 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Ohio
-Calvin Coolidge (MA), 48 years old, incumbent Governor of Massachusetts

Democratic Party ticket
-James M. Cox (OH), 50 years old, incumbent Governor of Ohio
-Franklin D. Roosevelt (NY), 38 years old, Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Navy

1924: Coolidge/Dawes defeated Davis/Bryan and La Follette/Wheeler
Republican Party ticket
-Calvin Coolidge (MA), 52 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Charles Gates Dawes (IL), 59 years old, diplomat/Member of the Allied Reparations Commission/former Brigadier General of the United States Army

Democratic Party ticket
-John W. Davis (WV), 51 years old, former U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain/American Bar Association president
-Charles W. Bryan (NE), incumbent Governor of Nebraska

Progressive Party ticket
-Robert M. La Follette, Sr. (WI), 69 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Wisconsin
-Burton K. Wheeler (MT), 42 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Montana

1928: Hoover/Curtis defeated Smith/Robinson
Republican Party ticket
-Herbert Hoover (CA), 54 years old, U.S. Secretary of Commerce
-Charles Curtis (KS), 68 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Kansas

Democratic Party ticket
-Alfred E. Smith (NY), 54 years old, incumbent Governor of New York
-Joseph T. Robinson (AR), 56 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Arkansas

1932: Roosevelt/Garner defeated Hoover/Curtis
Democratic Party ticket
-Franklin D. Roosevelt (NY), 50 years old, incumbent Governor of New York
-John Nance Garner (TX), 63 years old, incumbent Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives

Republican Party ticket
-Herbert Hoover (CA), 58 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Charles Curtis (KS), 72 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

1936: Roosevelt/Garner defeated Landon/Knox
Democratic Party ticket
-Franklin D. Roosevelt (NY), 54 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-John Nance Garner (TX), 67 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

Republican Party ticket
-Alf Landon (KS), 49 years old, incumbent Governor of Kansas
-Frank Knox (IL), 62 years old, Publisher of the Chicago Daily News

1940: Roosevelt/Wallace defeated Willkie/McNary
Democratic Party ticket
-Franklin D. Roosevelt (NY), 58 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Henry A. Wallace (IA), 52 years old, U.S. Secretary of Agriculture

Republican Party ticket
-Wendell L. Willkie (IN), 48 years old, lawyer
-Charles L. McNary (OR), 66 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Oregon

1944: Roosevelt/Truman defeated Dewey/Bricker
Democratic Party ticket
-Franklin D. Roosevelt (NY), 62 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Harry S. Truman (MO), 60 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Missouri

Republican Party ticket
-Thomas E. Dewey (NY), 42 years old, incumbent Governor of New York
-John W. Bricker (OH), 51 years old, incumbent Governor of Ohio

1948: Truman/Barkley defeated Dewey/Warren and Thurmond/Wright
Democratic Party ticket
-Harry S. Truman (MO), 64 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Alben W. Barkley (KY), 70 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Kentucky

Republican Party ticket
-Thomas E. Dewey (NY), 46 years old, incumbent Governor of New York
-Earl Warren (CA), 57 years old, incumbent Governor of California

States’ Rights/Dixiecrat ticket
-Strom Thurmond (SC), 45 years old, incumbent Governor of South Carolina
-Fielding L. Wright (MS), 53 years old, incumbent Governor of Mississippi

1952: Eisenhower/Nixon defeated Stevenson/Sparkman
Republican Party ticket
-Dwight D. Eisenhower (NY), 62 years old, General of the Army/Supreme Allied Commander of NATO
-Richard Nixon (CA), 39 years old, U.S. Senator from California

Democratic Party ticket
-Adlai E. Stevenson II (IL), 52 years old, incumbent Governor of Illinois
-John Sparkman (AL), 52 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Alabama

1956: Eisenhower/Nixon defeated Stevenson/Kefauver
Republican Party ticket
-Dwight D. Eisenhower (NY), 66 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Richard Nixon (CA), 43 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

Democratic Party ticket
-Adlai E. Stevenson II (IL), 56 years old, 1956 Democratic Presidential nominee/former Governor of Illinois
-Estes Kefauver (TN), 53 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Tennessee

Continuing our look at the major party tickets for President and Vice President since the enactment of the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution in 1804.  For Part I, covering 1804-1832, go here.

1836: Van Buren/Johnson defeated Harrison/Granger and White/Tyler
[No Vice Presidential candidate won the necessary Electoral College votes for election, so the Vice Presidency was decided by the U.S. Senate]
Democratic Party ticket
-Martin Van Buren (NY), 54 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States
-Richard M. Johnson (KY), 56 years old, incumbent U.S. Representative from Kentucky

Whig Party ticket
-William Henry Harrison (OH), 63 years old, former soldier (Major General, U.S. Army)/diplomat/territorial politician
-Francis Granger (NY), 44 years old, incumbent member of the New York State Assembly

Whig Party ticket
-Hugh Lawson White (TN), 63 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Tennessee
-John Tyler (VA), 46 years old, U.S. Senator from Virginia

1840: Harrison/Tyler defeated Van Buren/Johnson
Whig Party ticket
-William Henry Harrison (OH), 67 years old, former soldier (Major General, U.S. Army)/diplomat/territorial politician
-John Tyler (VA), 50 years old, Member of the Virginia House of Delegates

Democratic Party ticket
-Martin Van Buren (NY), 58 years old, incumbent President of the United States
[The Democratic Party did not nominated a Vice Presidential candidate in 1840.  Incumbent Vice President Richard M. Johnson was the de facto nominee, but Littleton Tazewell of Virginia and James K. Polk of Tennessee also received Vice Presidential Electoral votes.]

1844: Polk/Dallas defeated Clay/Frelinghuysen
Democratic Party ticket
-James Knox Polk (TN), 49 years old, former Governor of Tennessee
-George Mifflin Dallas (PA), 52 years old, former U.S. Minister to Russia

Whig Party ticket
-Henry Clay (KY), 67 years old, former U.S. Senator from Kentucky
-Theodore Frelinghuysen (NJ), 57 years old, Chancellor of New York University

1848: Taylor/Fillmore defeated Cass/Butler and Van Buren/Adams
Whig Party ticket
-Zachary Taylor (LA), 63 years old, Major General, United States Army
-Millard Fillmore (NY), 48 years old, Comptroller of New York State/former U.S. Representative from New York

Democratic Party ticket
-Lewis Cass (MI), 66 years old, U.S. Senator from Michigan
-William O. Butler (KY), 57 years old, Major General, United States Army

Free Soil Party ticket
-Martin Van Buren (NY), 65 years old, former President of the United States
-Charles Francis Adams (MA), 41 years old, former politician/Editor of the Boston Whig

1852: Pierce/King defeated Scott/Graham
Democratic Party ticket
-Franklin Pierce (NH), 47 years old, Brigadier General of the U.S. Army/former U.S. Senator from New Hampshire
-William Rufus DeVane King (AL), 66 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Alabama and president pro tempore of the United States Senate

Whig Party ticket
-Winfield Scott (VA), 66 years old, Lieutenant General of the United States Army
-William Alexander Graham (NC), 48 years old, U.S. Secretary of the Navy

1856: Buchanan/Breckinridge defeated Frémont/Dayton and Fillmore/Donelson
Democratic Party ticket
-James Buchanan (PA), 65 years old, U.S. Minister to Great Britain
-John C. Breckinridge (KY), 35 years old, former U.S. Representative from Kentucky

Republican Party ticket
-John C. Frémont (CA), 43 years old, former U.S. Senator from California
-William L. Dayton (NJ), 49 years old, former U.S. Senator from New Jersey

American/Know-Nothing Party ticket
-Millard Fillmore (NY), 56 years old, former President of the United States
-Andrew Jackson Donelson (TN), 57 years old, former diplomat/Editor of the Washington Union

1860: Lincoln/Hamlin defeated Breckinridge/Lane, Bell/Everett, and Douglas/Johnson
Republican Party ticket
-Abraham Lincoln (IL), 51 years old, lawyer/former U.S. Representative from Illinois
-Hannibal Hamlin (ME), 51 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Maine

National Democratic Party ticket
-John C. Breckinridge (KY), 39 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States
-Joseph Lane (OR), 59 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Oregon

Constitutional Union Party ticket
-John Bell (TN), 64 years old, former U.S. Senator from Tennessee
-Edward Everett (MA), 66 years old, former U.S. Senator from Massachusetts/former president of Harvard University

Democratic Party ticket
-Stephen A. Douglas (IL), 47 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Illinois
-Herschel V. Johnson (GA), 48 years old, former Governor of Georgia

1864: Lincoln/Johnson defeated McClellan/Pendleton
National Union Party ticket
-Abraham Lincoln (IL), 55 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Andrew Johnson (TN), 55 years old, incumbent Military Governor of Tennessee

Democratic Party ticket
-George B. McClellan (NJ), 37 years old, Major General of the United States Army
-George H. Pendleton (OH), 39 years old, incumbent U.S. Representative from Ohio

1868: Grant/Colfax defeated Seymour/Blair
Republican Party ticket
-Ulysses S. Grant (IL), 46 years old, General of the Army/Commanding General of the United States
-Schuyler Colfax (IN), 45 years old, incumbent Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives

Democratic Party ticket
-Horatio Seymour (NY), 58 years old, former Governor of New York
-Francis P. Blair, Jr. (MO), 47 years old, former Major General of the U.S. Army/former U.S. Representative from Missouri

1872: Grant/Wilson defeated Greeley/Brown
Republican Party ticket
-Ulysses S. Grant (IL), 50 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Henry Wilson (MA), 60 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Massachusetts

Liberal Republican Party ticket
-Horace Greeley (NY), 61 years old, Editor of the New York Tribune
-B. Gratz Brown (MO), 46 years old, incumbent Governor of Missouri
[Greeley died between Election Day and the meeting of the Electoral College, so the votes he would have received were divided amongst Thomas A. Hendricks (IN), the VP candidate B. Gratz Brown, Charles J. Jenkins (GA), and David Davis (IL)]

1876: Hayes/Wheeler defeated Tilden/Hendricks
[No candidate won the requisite number of Electoral votes needed for election and the disputed 1876 election was decided just two days before Inauguration Day by an Electoral Commission appointed by Congress]
Republican Party ticket
-Rutherford B. Hayes (OH), 54 years old, incumbent Governor of Ohio
-William A. Wheeler (NY), 57 years old, incumbent U.S. Representative from Ohio

Democratic Party ticket
-Samuel J. Tilden (NY), 62 years old, incumbent Governor of New York
-Thomas A. Hendricks (IN), 57 years old, incumbent Governor of Indiana

1880: Garfield/Arthur defeated Hancock/English
Republican Party ticket
-James Garfield (OH), 48 years old, incumbent U.S. Representative from Ohio
-Chester A. Arthur (NY), 51 years old, former Collector of the Port of New York

Democratic Party ticket
-Winfield Scott Hancock (PA), 56 years old, Major General of the United States Army
-William H. English (IN), 58 years old, author/former U.S. Representative from Indiana

1884: Cleveland/Hendricks defeated Blaine/Logan
Democratic Party ticket
-Grover Cleveland (NY), 47 years old, incumbent Governor of New York
-Thomas A. Hendricks (IN), 65 years old, former Governor of Indiana/1876 Democratic Vice Presidential nominee

Republican Party ticket
-James G. Blaine (ME), 54 years old, former U.S. Secretary of State/former U.S. Senator from Maine/former Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives
-John A. Logan (IL), 58 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Illinois

1888: Harrison/Morton defeated Cleveland/Thurman
Republican Party ticket
-Benjamin Harrison (IN), 55 years old, former U.S. Senator from Indiana
-Levi P. Morton (NY), 64 years old, former U.S. Minister to France/former U.S. Representative from New York

Democratic Party ticket
-Grover Cleveland (NY), 51 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Allen G. Thurman (OH), 74 years old, diplomat/former U.S. Senator from Ohio

1892: Cleveland/Stevenson defeated Harrison/Reid and Weaver/Field
Democratic Party ticket
-Grover Cleveland (NY), 55 years old, former President of the United States
-Adlai E. Stevenson (IL), 57 years old, former U.S. Representative from Illinois/former Assistant Postmaster General of the United States

Republican Party ticket
-Benjamin Harrison (IN), 59 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Whitelaw Reid (NY), 55 years old, U.S. Ambassador to France

People’s/Populist Party ticket
-James B. Weaver (IA), 59 years old, former U.S. Representative from Iowa
-James G. Field (VA), 66 years old, former Attorney General of Virginia/former Confederate Army General

Now that we know who all of the main players are in the 2012 election, we’re going to break down the major candidates for President and Vice President over the next few days.  First, let’s take a look at the major party tickets for President and Vice President since the enactment of the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution in 1804:

1804: Jefferson/Clinton defeated Pinckney/King
Democratic-Republican Party ticket
-Thomas Jefferson (VA), 61 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-George Clinton (NY), 65 years old, former Governor of New York

Federalist Party ticket
-Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (SC), 58 years old, retired soldier (Major General)/diplomat
-Rufus King (NY), 49 years old, diplomat (U.S. Minister to Great Britain)/former U.S. Senator from New York

1808: Madison/Clinton defeated Pinckney/King
Democratic-Republican Party ticket
-James Madison (VA), 57 years old, incumbent U.S. Secretary of State
-George Clinton (NY), 69 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

Federalist Party ticket
-Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (SC), 62 years old, retired soldier/diplomat/1804 Federalist Presidential nominee
-Rufus King (NY), 53 years old, diplomat/former U.S. Senator from New York/1804 Federalist Vice Presidential nominee

1812: Madison/Gerry defeated Clinton/Ingersoll
Democratic-Republican Party ticket
-James Madison (VA), 61 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Elbridge Gerry (MA), 68 years old, incumbent Governor of Massachusetts

Federalist Party ticket
-DeWitt Clinton (NY), 43 years old, incumbent Mayor of New York City
-Jared Ingersoll (PA), 63 years old, incumbent Attorney General of Pennsylvania

1816: Monroe/Tompkins defeated King/Howard
Democratic-Republican Party ticket
-James Monroe (VA), 58 years old, incumbent U.S. Secretary of State
-Daniel D. Tompkins (NY), 42 years old, incumbent Governor of New York

Federalist Party ticket
-Rufus King (NY), 61 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from New York
-John Eager Howard (MD), 64 years old, former U.S. Senator and Governor of Maryland [The Federalist Party did not officially nominate a Vice Presidential candidate in 1816]

1820: Monroe/Tompkins were unopposed in the 1820 election
Democratic-Republican Party ticket
-James Monroe (VA), 62 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Daniel D. Tompkins (NY), 46 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

1824: Adams/Calhoun defeated Jackson/Calhoun, Crawford/Macon, and Clay/Sanford
*The Democratic-Republican Party was the only major political party in 1824 and it resulted in four different tickets emerging from various regions of the country.  No clear winner in the Electoral College led to the election being decided in the House of Representatives in February 1825.  John C. Calhoun originally sought the Presidency, but withdrew to seek the Vice Presidency and was the running mate of both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson.

Democratic-Republican Party
-John Quincy Adams (MA), 57 years old, incumbent U.S. Secretary of State
-John C. Calhoun (SC), 42 years old, incumbent U.S. Secretary of War

Democratic-Republican Party
-Andrew Jackson (TN), 57 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Tennessee
-John C. Calhoun (SC), 42 years old, incumbent U.S. Secretary of War

Democratic-Republican Party
-William H. Crawford (GA), 52 years old, incumbent U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
-Nathaniel Macon (NC), 67 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from North Carolina
[Macon replaced Albert Gallatin, who withdrew after being named Crawford’s running mate]

Democratic-Republican Party
-Henry Clay (KY), 47 years old, incumbent U.S. Speaker of the House of Representatives
-Nathan Sanford (NY), 47 years old, incumbent Chancellor of New York

1828: Jackson/Calhoun defeated Adams/Rush
Democratic Party ticket
-Andrew Jackson (TN), 61 years old, retired soldier (Major General)/former U.S. Senator from Tennessee
-John C. Calhoun (SC), 46 years old, incumbent Vice President of the United States

National Republican Party ticket
-John Quincy Adams (MA), 61 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Richard Rush (PA), 48 years old, incumbent U.S. Secretary of the Treasury

1832: Jackson/Van Buren defeated Clay/Sergeant and Wirt/Ellmaker
Democratic Party ticket
-Andrew Jackson (TN), 64 years old, incumbent President of the United States
-Martin Van Buren (NY), 50 years old, U.S. Minister to Great Britain

National Republican Party ticket
-Henry Clay (KY), 55 years old, incumbent U.S. Senator from Kentucky
-John Sergeant (PA), 53 years old, former U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania

Anti-Masonic Party ticket
-William Wirt (VA), 60 years old, former Attorney General of the United States
-Amos Ellmaker (PA), 45 years old, former Attorney General of Pennsylvania

Since the Presidents of the United States reach the pinnacle of political power, we sometimes forget that the path to the summit is difficult and often full of disappointing political defeats.  Here are some of the elections that our Presidents have lost during their political careers:

George Washington:  No election losses
John Adams:  Lost the 1800 Presidential election
Thomas Jefferson:  Runner-up in the 1796 Presidential election
James Madison:  Lost a 1777 campaign for reelection to the Virginia House of Delegates
James Monroe:  Lost a 1789 election to the U.S. House of Representatives from Virginia
John Quincy Adams:  Lost 1802 election to the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts; Defeated for reelection to the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts in 1808; Lost 1828 campaign for reelection as President; Lost 1834 campaign for Governor of Massachusetts
Andrew Jackson:  Lost the 1824 Presidential election
Martin Van Buren:  Lost 1840 campaign for reelection as President; Lost the 1844 campaign for the Democratic Presidential nomination; Lost the 1848 Presidential election
William Henry Harrison:  Lost the 1820 election for Governor of Ohio; Lost an 1822 campaign for the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio; Lost the 1836 Presidential election
John Tyler:  Lost 1836 election for Vice President of the United States
James K. Polk:  Lost 1841 campaign for reelection as Governor of Tennessee; Lost 1843 election for Governor of Tennessee
Zachary Taylor:  No election losses
Millard Fillmore:  Lost 1844 Whig nomination for Vice President; Lost 1844 election for Governor of New York; Lost 1852 campaign for the Whig Presidential nomination; Lost the 1856 Presidential election
Franklin Pierce:  Lost 1856 campaign for renomination as Democratic Presidential candidate
James Buchanan:  Lost 1816 election for the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania; Lost campaign for the 1844 Democratic Presidential nomination; Lost campaign for the 1848 Democratic Presidential nomination; Lost campaign for the 1852 Democratic Presidential nomination
Abraham Lincoln:  Lost 1832 election for Illinois House of Representatives; Lost 1843 election for the U.S. House of Representatives from Illinois; Lost 1855 election to the U.S. Senate from Illinois; Lost campaign for the 1856 Republican Vice Presidential nomination; Lost 1858 election to the U.S. Senate from Illinois
Andrew Johnson:  Lost 1837 campaign for reelection to the Tennessee House of Representatives; Lost 1868 campaign for renomination as Democratic Presidential candidate; Lost 1871 election for U.S. Senate from Tennessee; Lost 1872 election for U.S. House of Representatives from Tennessee
Ulysses S. Grant:  Lost 1880 campaign for the Republican Presidential nomination
Rutherford B. Hayes:  Lost 1861 campaign for reelection as City Solicitor of Cincinnati, Ohio; Lost 1872 election for the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio
James Garfield:  No election losses
Chester Arthur:  Lost campaign for 1884 Republican Presidential nomination
Grover Cleveland:  Lost 1865 election for District Attorney of Erie County, New York; Lost 1888 campaign for reelection as President
Benjamin Harrison:  Lost 1872 campaign for the Republican nomination as Governor of Indiana; Lost 1876 election for Governor of Indiana; Lost 1887 campaign for reelection to the U.S. Senate from Indiana; Lost 1892 campaign for reelection as President
William McKinley:  Lost 1871 campaign for reelection as Stark County, Ohio prosecutor; Lost 1882 campaign for reelection to the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio; Lost 1890 campaign for reelection to the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio; Lost 1892 campaign for the Republican Presidential nomination
Theodore Roosevelt:  Lost 1886 election for Mayor of New York City, New York; Lost 1912 campaign for Republican Presidential nomination; Lost 1912 Presidential election as third party candidate
William Howard Taft:  Lost 1912 campaign for reelection as President
Woodrow Wilson:  No election losses
Warren G. Harding:  Lost 1892 election for Marion County, Ohio auditor; Lost 1903 campaign for Republican nomination as Governor of Ohio; Lost 1906 campaign for Republican nomination as Governor of Ohio; Lost 1910 election for Governor of Ohio
Calvin Coolidge:  Lost 1905 election for the the School Board of Northampton, Massachusetts
Herbert Hoover:  Lost 1932 campaign for reelection as President
Franklin D. Roosevelt:  Lost 1914 campaign for Democratic nomination for U.S. Senate from New York; Lost 1920 election for Vice President of the United States
Harry Truman:  Lost 1924 reelection campaign for Judge of Jackson County, Missouri
Dwight D. Eisenhower:  No election losses
John F. Kennedy:  Lost 1956 campaign for the Democratic Vice Presidential nomination
Lyndon B. Johnson:  Lost 1941 election for U.S. Senate from Texas; Lost 1960 campaign for Democratic Presidential nomination
Richard Nixon:  Lost the 1960 Presidential election; Lost the 1962 election for Governor of California
Gerald Ford:  Lost the 1976 Presidential election
Jimmy Carter:  Lost the 1966 campaign for the Democratic nomination for Governor of Georgia; Lost the 1980 Presidential election
Ronald Reagan:  Lost 1968 campaign for Republican Presidential nomination; Lost 1976 campaign for Republican Presidential nomination
George H.W. Bush:  Lost 1964 election to the U.S. Senate from Texas; Lost 1970 election to the U.S. Senate from Texas; Lost 1980 campaign for the Republican Presidential nomination; Lost 1992 Presidential election
Bill Clinton:  Lost 1974 election for the U.S. House of Representatives from Arkansas; Lost 1980 reelection campaign a Governor of Arkansas
George W. Bush:  Lost 1978 election for the U.S. House of Representatives from Texas
Barack Obama:  Lost 2000 primary campaign for the Democratic nomination for the U.S. House of Representatives from Illinois