Dead Presidents

Historical facts, thoughts, ramblings and collections on the Presidency and about the Presidents of the United States.

By Anthony Bergen
E-Mail: bergen.anthony@gmail.com

You would be hard-pressed to find many comparisons between Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the United States, and Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States.  Most historians agree that Lincoln is probably the greatest President in American History; a similar amount of historians usually rank Pierce as one of the worst.  Lincoln guided the country through Civil War and to victory; the policies of Pierce’s Administration helped divide the nation and make Civil War a reality.  Despite being born in the South, Lincoln fought during every minute of his Presidency to keep the Union together;  Pierce, born and raised in New Hampshire, was a “doughface”, Southern sympathizer, and close friends with Confederate President Jefferson Davis who served as Secretary of War in Pierce’s Administration.  Lincoln died just days after the surrender of Robert E. Lee at Appomattox and was immediately considered a martyr by the American public after his death.  After dispersing a crowd that angrily gathered in front of his home following Lincoln’s assassination, Franklin Pierce went back to doing what he had done since leaving the White House in 1857 — drinking himself to death.

There is one thing that links these two men beyond the fact that they were both Presidents during the most divisive period in American History — tragedy.  In the exclusive fraternity of American Presidents, it’s impossible to find two more melancholy individuals than Franklin Pierce and Abraham Lincoln.

Lincoln battled deep depression throughout his life and, as a young man in Illinois, Lincoln admitted that he contemplated suicide at times.  During his career as a lawyer riding the Illinois court circuit, Lincoln’s friend Joshua Speed recalls the future President remarking “If what I feel were equally distributed to the whole human family, there would not be one cheerful face on the earth.  Whether I shall ever be better I cannot tell; I awfully forebode that I shall not.  To remain as I am is impossible; I must die or be better, it appears to me.”

What troubled Lincoln is difficult to pinpoint.  Before he married Mary Todd, Lincoln was romantically interested in Ann Rutledge, the daughter of a New Salem, Illinois tavern owner.  Lincoln was a frequent visitor to the Rutledge home and was devastated when Ann died of typhoid fever in 1835.  William H. Herndon — Lincoln’s longtime law partner and one of the first biographers of Lincoln — acknowledged that the future President loved Ann Rutledge and that the grieving Lincoln was suicidal in the days and weeks following Ann’s funeral.  Five years after Ann Rutledge’s death, Lincoln and Mary Todd were engaged, and the couple married in 1842.  Mary had a terrible temper and her mental condition was so tenuous that her son, Robert, finally had her committed to an asylum after President Lincoln’s death.  Mary was a lot of things that Lincoln was not — short, overweight, confrontational, insecure, and temperamental.  The marriage was rocky at times, but Lincoln was passionately defensive about charges against his wife.  When Mary lost control and screamed at Lincoln or charged the President with jealous accusations, Lincoln walked away from the fights and always returned to check on Mary’s condition once she cooled down.  For a President trying to save his country from destruction, these personal domestic crises had to be taxing on Lincoln.

To find a bright spot somewhere, Lincoln turned to his children for solace.  Lincoln’s four sons were all born in Springfield, Illinois with Robert Todd Lincoln leading the way in 1843.  By the time of Lincoln’s Presidency, Robert was an adult attending Harvard and he spent the last months of the Civil War on the staff of General Ulysses S. Grant.  The second son, Edward Baker Lincoln, was another source of sadness for the Lincolns.  Edward died at the age of four; an event that left Mary on the brink of breakdown and pushed Lincoln to cherish the next two children, Willie (born in 1850), and Tad (born in 1853).  As President, Lincoln was horrified by dispatches describing the ongoing Civil War, tried to shut out the distractions caused by his unstable wife, and discovered happiness only in those moments where he could play with Willie and Tad.

Willie Lincoln was dedicated to his love for books, much like his father, and it was no secret to anyone that Willie was the President’s favorite child.  Tad was more rambunctious, always into joking and playing around, and Lincoln took great satisfaction from Tad’s affinity for dressing up like the soldiers who protected Washington and the White House from the rebel forces.  Like the Biblical Job, however, Lincoln had to face adversity while persevering relentlessly towards his goal.  In February 1862, Willie Lincoln took ill after riding his beloved pony in chilly weather.  Doctors ordered bed rest and Willie rallied at first, but on February 20th, he died from what is thought to be typhoid fever.  The Lincolns were devastated, Mary was inconsolable and shut herself off from the world for three weeks.  Lincoln worried about Mary while also nursing his youngest son, Tad, who came down with the same illness that killed Willie and was in critical condition himself.  Tad recovered, but Lincoln was at times overcome by sadness.  Every Thursday for several weeks, Lincoln locked himself in the Green Room of the White House, the room where Willie died, and cried for his lost son.  Willie’s death “showed me my weakness as I had never felt it before.”  The light had gone out of Abraham Lincoln’s life forever.  Only once more did he feel a pinch of happiness and that was on the day that he truly considered the Civil War to finally be over — April 14, 1865.  That night, John Wilkes Booth ended Abraham Lincoln’s suffering.

It was Willie Lincoln’s death in the White House in 1862 that brought Franklin Pierce and Abraham Lincoln the closest that they would ever be.  Men of different political parties, different backgrounds, and different viewpoints on the biggest issue of the day; they were as far apart politically as they were in physical appearance.  Lincoln was described by even his closest friends as “ugly” and his opponents likened him to a “baboon”.  Lincoln wore the same old suit constantly, he rarely took the time to comb his hair, and he didn’t care what people thought of his “style”.  Franklin Pierce looked like a Roman statue come to life.  Pierce had long, curly, jet-black hair that he combed over the side of his forehead, he dressed impeccably, and one historian calls him “perhaps the most handsome President”.  Even President Harry Truman — a vicious detractor of Pierce’s Presidency — called Pierce “the best-looking President the White House ever had” and suggested that he “looked the way people who make movies think a President should look”.

Behind those looks, however, was a man who was as unsuccessful at fighting depression as he was at fighting alcoholism.  Franklin Pierce was ambitious and rose to the Presidency at a younger age than any of his predecessors.  His ambition, however, strained his marriage with Jane Means Appleton, who hated politics and hated Washington, D.C.  Pierce didn’t help the marriage by not consulting with Jane before undertaking a life-changing experience such as accepting the Democratic nomination for President in 1852.  Jane had heard that Franklin was being considered as a compromise choice by the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore, but believed that he had no chance against better-known names such as James Buchanan, Lewis Cass, and Stephen A. Douglas.  While out for a carriage ride in Cambridge, Massachusetts, a rider galloped up to the wagon carrying the Pierces with the news that Franklin had won the Democratic nomination.  Franklin smiled excitedly, but Jane nearly passed out.  Pierce had promised that he was done with politics, that they were done with Washington forever, and now it was a near-certainty that he would be elected President of the United States.

Like the Lincolns, the Pierce family had lost two sons at young age.  The first born, Frank Jr., died as an infant, and their second son, Franklin Robert Pierce, died at the age of four.  Their son Benjamin was their only surviving offspring, and they devoted all of their parental love to Bennie.  In times of the deep depression that both Franklin and Jane suffered from, both parents could turn to Bennie for some joy and to remind themselves that not all was lost.  Like his mother, Bennie was shy and unhappy about a potential move to Washington.  Shortly after Pierce won the Democratic nomination, Bennie wrote his mother: “I hope he won’t be elected for I should not like to be at Washington.  And I know you would not be either.”  The hopes and prayers of his wife and his son were in complete opposition to those of Franklin Pierce.  He wanted, more than anything, to be President.  On Election Day, he was granted his wish as he trounced General Winfield Scott on won the Presidential election.

While Franklin prepared to take the reins of the country, Jane and Bennie prepared for the dreaded move into the White House in Washington.  Jane tried her best to project some happiness for Franklin’s sake, and she found some assistance from her religious devotion.  As 1853 began, the Pierces prepared for the move to Washington, D.C. and left New Hampshire in January, deciding to stop in Massachusetts for visits with family and friends before arriving in Washington for the inauguration scheduled on March 4th.

On January 6, 1853, a train carrying the young President-elect, his wife, and their only surviving son left Andover, Massachusetts.  Just a few minutes after departing Andover, the passenger car detached from the train and rolled down an embankment.  None of the passengers including Franklin Pierce and his wife were injured except for one person.  In front of his horrified parents, Benjamin Pierce was thrown from the train and was nearly decapitated as his head was gruesomely crushed.  Bennie Pierce was killed instantly, and his parents would never be the same.

Less than two months later, Pierce was sworn in as President.  The only President who memorized his inaugural address, Pierce started by telling the crowd in front of the U.S. Capitol, “It is a relief to feel that no heart but my own can know the personal regret and bitter sorrow over which I have been borne to a position so suitable for others rather than desirable for myself.”  Traumatized by Bennie’s death, Jane refused to continue any further towards Washington than Baltimore.  Pierce had to face the Presidency and the mourning period for their son without his wife.  As he told the American public in his inaugural address, “You have summoned me in my weakness; you must sustain me with your strength.”

When Jane finally arrived at the White House, she still didn’t make much of an impact.  People referred to her as “the shadow of the White House” and she frequently closed herself off in an upstairs bedroom where she wrote letters to her dead children and stuffed them in a fireplace.  Jefferson Davis’s wife, Varina, often substituted as White House hostess.  In a way, Jane indirectly blamed her husband for Bennie’s death, claiming that God took Bennie from them so that Franklin would have nothing distracting him from his accomplishments.  When Jane died in 1863, Pierce’s closest friend, Nathaniel Hawthorne, said that she was never interested in “things present”.

Franklin’s “accomplishments” were not much.  He had a difficult time saying “no”, and often agreed to go along with the last person he talked to before making a decision.  Pierce was indeed absent of distractions, but he needed some.  The country was being torn apart by the slavery question and the Kansas-Nebraska Act inflamed tensions; it was no longer a matter of debate — in some places, open warfare was breaking out.  The President found his distraction came in the form of a bottle.  The President was an alcoholic and in 1856, his own party refused to consider him for re-election.  As his term ended at the beginning of 1857, Pierce said, “There’s nothing left to do but to get drunk.”  He lived by that motto until his drinking finally killed him in 1869.

During Franklin Pierce’s retirement, he spoke out against Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War itself.  Some called him a traitor, and even his close friends snubbed him.  When Pierce’s friend, Nathaniel Hawthorne, died, he wasn’t even allowed to be a pall bearer as Hawthorne requested.  But despite their many differences, Lincoln found himself in a place that only Franklin Pierce knew — mourning a lost child and worrying about an unstable wife while running a divided country.  A few weeks following Willie’s death, President Lincoln received this letter:

Concord N. H.

March 4 1862

My dear Sir,

The impulse to write you, the moment I heard of your great domestic affliction was very strong, but it brought back the crushing sorrow which befel me just before I went to Washington in 1853, with such power that I felt your grief, to be too sacred for intrusion.

Even in this hour, so full of danger to our Country, and of trial and anxiety to all good men, your thoughts, will be, of your cherished boy, who will nestle at your heart, until you meet him in that new life, when tears and toils and conflict will be unknown.

I realize fully how vain it would be, to suggest sources of consolation.

There can be but one refuge in such an hour, — but one remedy for smitten hearts, which, is to trust in Him “who doeth all things well”, and leave the rest to —

“Time, comforter & only healer
When the heart hath broke”

With Mrs Pierce’s and my own best wishes — and truest sympathy for Mrs Lincoln and yourself

I am, very truly,
Yr. friend
Franklin Pierce

The melancholy Presidents — so far apart in each and every other aspect of their lives — could at the very least find companionship, if not comfort, in the other’s strength through painful weakness.